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 تعلم التركيبات الصيدلانيه خطوه بخطوه

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مُساهمةموضوع: تعلم التركيبات الصيدلانيه خطوه بخطوه   الأحد أكتوبر 10, 2010 9:26 pm



How to formulate a syrup

?
First: what is the syrup
?

Definition:

-syrups are concentrated aqueous preparation of sugar or sugar-substitute with or without flavoring agent and medicinal substance.
او زى مابنسمية بالعربى الشربات.


Imp notes of syrups:

1-syrup is suitable if the drug is water soluble.
يجب ان تكون مادة التركيبة تذوب فى الماء.



2-it can mask unpleasant tasting of wide range of drugs.
ودا مهم جدا لان بعض الادوية بيكون طعمها غير مستساغ. فالسيرب بيحسن من طعمها وبالتالى من تقبلها لدى المرضى وخاصة الاطفال.



3-the viscosity of syrup will keep flavor in the mouth longer.



*problems of syrups:
-high sugar ******* of syrup is not suitable for diabetic
.

-it decreases dissolution rate and extent of active ingredients.


-its high viscosity will trap air bubbles for a longer period upon shaking or agitation of the preparation

.
N.B:
The preservative property of the syrup depends on the maintaining a high sucrose concentration in the final preparation.
- If sucrose conc. Decreased, it may be necessary to add another preservative
.
*one gram of sucrose preserves 0.53 ml of water and occupies 0.647 ml.
For ex
:
RX
Drug 1……… 120mg
Drug 2……… 20 ml
Water………..20 ml
Syrup Qs …...100ml
(Syrup contains 85% w/v sucrose according to USP
)
- this formula contain 60 ml syrup and this will contain (85%*60 ml)……..51gm

That means that 51 gm of sucrose in this formula will occupy (51*0.647)……..33 ml of solution & preserve (51*0.53)………27ml water

And this means that only 60 ml of formula is preserved.
So, to preserve the remaining 40 ml we need for example.
(0.1%*40) 0.04 gm Sorbic Acid
.
امثلة لبعض المواد الحافظة

Preservative .........concentration
Benzoic acid ...............0.2%
sodium benzoate .........0.2%
Methyl paraben .......=< 0.2%
propyl paraben........ =< 0.2%
Potassium sorbate ........0.2%
Sorbic acid................... 0.2%
N.B:
Most syrups have an acidic PH ranging between 3-7
.
Procedure of preparing syr is expressed in the following picture


:


- why pharmacist should compound oral dosage forms?



1 - Many drug products are not commercially available as oral liquid

.
مثال: عند نقص دواءالـ Buscopan syrup من السوق كان لابد من ايجاد طريقة اخرى لتحضيرة فى هيئة سائل من اجل الاطفال


2- Infants, pediatric, and some psychiatric patients cannot swallow solid dosage forms. 3- Drugs are often more bioavailable in liquid form than solid form

.
*difficulties facing pharmacist who is going to prepare an oral liquid dosage forms:


- unstable drugs are even more unstable in solution. - Poorly soluble drugs must be solublised or suspended. - Bad tasting drugs must be flavored to be relatively platable. - Multiple dose packages need a proper preservation system
.
ودى من المشاكل اللى بتواجهنا واحنا بنحضر السوائل لذلك فى احتياطات يجب اتخاذها لتقليل هذة المشاكل وتفاديها وتحسين خواص التركيبة ومنها:


1- The source of active ingredients:
the pharmaceutical or analytical grade chemicals are better for use rather than ones derived from commercially available drug like injection, tablets, or capsules
.
يجب تحرى الدقة فى المصدر اللى بنحصل منة على المواد الخام لانها بتكون افضل من اللى بنحصل عليها من الحقن او الاقراص والكبسولات.


2- Sustained acting or slow release tablets or capsules are not suitable for use as a source of the active ingredients.
لايصح استعمال الاقراص اوالكبسولات ممتدة المفعول او بطيئة المفعول فى تحضيرالسوائل

3- Physicochemical properties of the active ingradients, pH of maximum stability and solubility may be greatly influence the quality and the activity of pharmaceutical dosage form
.

* PH is critical in maintaining drug in solution, a slight inc. or dec. in the pH
can cause some drugs to precipitate from a solution
.
-a slight adjustment of PH can aid in solubilising some drugs.
N.B: Basic drugs are highly soluble in acidic medium and vice versa
.

Stability and storage condition of preparation
:
N.B:-liquids for oral use may contain suitable antimicrobial preservative, antioxidants, and other exepients such as dispersing, suspending, thickening, emulsifying, buffering, wetting, solubilising, flavoring, sweetening and coloring agents.
والمواد المضافة دى هدفها هى تحسين خواص السائل للوصول الى الشكل المرغوب فية من حيث الخواص والطعم والشكل .......الخ.

- Storage Oral liquids should be stored in well closed containers.
Labeling :
the label should states
:
1- The date after which the oral liquid is not intended to be used
.
يجب ان ندون تاريخ الصلاحية.
2- The conditions under which the oral liquid should be stored.
شروط التخزين للدواء مثل درجة الحرارة....الخ


3- For oral emulsions, oral suspensions……etc
the bottle should be shaken before use






آخر تعديل DR.ASMAA يوم 10-19-2007 في 11:21 PM.
رد مع اقتباس
DR.ASMAA
مشاهدة ملفه الشخصي
إرسال رسالة خاصة إلى DR.ASMAA
البحث عن المزيد من المشاركات المكتوبة بواسطة DR.ASMAA

قديم 10-14-2007, 01:27 AM رقم المشاركة : 2
معلومات العضو
DR.ASMAA
صيدلي فريش

الصورة الرمزية DR.ASMAA

إحصائية العضو







[Egypt]

[Female]

DR.ASMAA غير متواجد حالياً


افتراضي 1-Syrup

How to formulate a syrup

?
First: what is the syrup
?

Definition:

-syrups are concentrated aqueous preparation of sugar or sugar-substitute with or without flavoring agent and medicinal substance.
او زى مابنسمية بالعربى الشربات.


Imp notes of syrups:

1-syrup is suitable if the drug is water soluble.
يجب ان تكون مادة التركيبة تذوب فى الماء.



2-it can mask unpleasant tasting of wide range of drugs.
ودا مهم جدا لان بعض الادوية بيكون طعمها غير مستساغ. فالسيرب بيحسن من طعمها وبالتالى من تقبلها لدى المرضى وخاصة الاطفال.



3-the viscosity of syrup will keep flavor in the mouth longer.



*problems of syrups:
-high sugar ******* of syrup is not suitable for diabetic
.

-it decreases dissolution rate and extent of active ingredients.


-its high viscosity will trap air bubbles for a longer period upon shaking or agitation of the preparation

.
N.B:
The preservative property of the syrup depends on the maintaining a high sucrose concentration in the final preparation.
- If sucrose conc. Decreased, it may be necessary to add another preservative
.
*one gram of sucrose preserves 0.53 ml of water and occupies 0.647 ml.
For ex
:
RX
Drug 1……… 120mg
Drug 2……… 20 ml
Water………..20 ml
Syrup Qs …...100ml
(Syrup contains 85% w/v sucrose according to USP
)
- this formula contain 60 ml syrup and this will contain (85%*60 ml)……..51gm

That means that 51 gm of sucrose in this formula will occupy (51*0.647)……..33 ml of solution & preserve (51*0.53)………27ml water

And this means that only 60 ml of formula is preserved.
So, to preserve the remaining 40 ml we need for example.
(0.1%*40) 0.04 gm Sorbic Acid
.
امثلة لبعض المواد الحافظة

Preservative .........concentration
Benzoic acid ...............0.2%
sodium benzoate .........0.2%
Methyl paraben .......=< 0.2%
propyl paraben........ =< 0.2%
Potassium sorbate ........0.2%
Sorbic acid................... 0.2%
N.B:
Most syrups have an acidic PH ranging between 3-7
.
Procedure of preparing syr is expressed in the following picture

ملحق..تعلم معنا..التركيبات خطوةخطوة

appendix
As well as Dr ASMAA said above ,I would like to put here some formulation
Ferrous sulfate syrup
RX
Ferrous sulfate -----------------------------1.2g
Ascorbic acid -------------------------------0.2g
Flavoring syrup ----------------------------10ml
Double strength chloroform water ---50ml
Purified water ---------- to ----------100ml
Procedure
Dissolve the ascorbic acid in the double strength chloroform water and
use this solution to dissolve the ferrous sulfate then add the flavoring
syrup and adjust the volume with water
storage
Ferrous sulfate oxidized rapidly when exposed to air so it should be recently
prepared and stored in tight amber bottle
Action and use
Ferrous sulfate:
a salt obtained usually in its bluish-green hydrated form FeSO4·7H2O that
is used especially in making inks, pigments, and other iron salts and
in medicine for treating anemia caused by iron deficiency

another prescription
Cough and cold syrup
RX
Dextromethorphan hydrobromide-----------2g
Guaifenesin----------------------10g
Chlorpheniramine maleate--------------0.2g
Phenylephrine hydrochloride-----------1g
Sodium benzoate-------------------1g
Saccharine sodium------------------1.9g
Citric acid ----------------------------1g
Sodium chloride ------------------5.2g
Alcohol----------------------------50ml
Sorbitol solution---------------------324ml
Syrup------------------------------------132ml
Liquid glucose ----------------------44ml
Color-------------------------------------qs
Flavor --------------------------------qs
Purified water to make---------1000ml
note
qs = sufficient quantity



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